Entenda os perigos da pressão alta e fique em alerta

A pressão alta é uma doença perigosa e silenciosa que atinge cerca de 30% da população adulta. Mas até crianças e adolescentes podem desenvolver um quadro de hipertensão, de acordo com os hábitos alimentares e o nível de sedentarismo que apresentam.

A hipertensão arterial é um dos principais fatores de risco para infarto do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral, eclampsia e insuficiência renal. O diagnóstico precoce, seguido do tratamento adequado e de mudanças nos hábitos, garantem longevidade e qualidade de vida.

A seguir, entenda o que causa a pressão alta, os sintomas, seus riscos e quais cuidados são necessários para fazer a manutenção da saúde. Continue a leitura!

Causas da pressão alta

A hipertensão arterial tem origem em diversos fatores e, sem dúvidas, a genética exerce um peso importante no desencadeamento da doença. Além disso, o sedentarismo, a obesidade e a ingestão de alimentos com excesso de sal estão correlacionados ao problema.

O quadro também pode ser causado por doença renal, efeito colateral de medicamentos, problemas hormonais e gravidez. Embora existam casos cada vez mais frequentes de crianças e adolescentes com pressão alta, o mais corriqueiro é que desenvolvam a partir dos 30 anos.

Consequências do quadro

Quando não controlada, a hipertensão causa muitos danos à saúde. Com o passar dos anos, os vasos afetados se tornam endurecidos e estreitos, podendo entupir ou romper. Se isso ocorre no coração, há o infarto do miocárdio. No cérebro, pode ser desencadeado o acidente vascular cerebral ou um quadro de demência.

Além disso, existe o risco de os vasos sanguíneos que irrigam os olhos serem afetados, causando problemas na visão. Outra consequência é a paralisação do funcionamento dos rins, em um quadro de insuficiência renal.

Na gestação, pode haver a pré-eclampsia, que é a hipertensão acompanhada de eliminação de proteína pela urina. Caso não seja tratado, o quadro pode culminar em uma eclampsia, que tem elevado risco para a mãe e o bebê.

Sintomas

Nem sempre a hipertensão dá sinais, portanto costuma ser considerada uma doença silenciosa. Na maioria das vezes, a pessoa só começa a se sentir mal quando a pressão já está bastante elevada. Por isso, um check-up médico pode ser determinante na descoberta precoce da doença.

Entre os sintomas, são relatadas as seguintes condições:

  • dor de cabeça;
  • dor na nuca;
  • tonturas;
  • visão turva;
  • sensação de desmaio;
  • dores no peito;
  • zumbido no ouvido;
  • inchaço do rosto e dos membros.

Tratamento para a doença

Como não tem cura, a hipertensão exige um controle rígido, que inclui exames clínicos, laboratoriais e medicamentos. Porém, é fundamental que o paciente passe por uma mudança em seu estilo de vida. Veja o que deve ser feito:

  • manter uma alimentação saudável;
  • evitar comida industrializada e embutidos, que contêm muito sódio;
  • praticar atividades físicas regularmente;
  • parar de fumar;
  • beber com moderação;
  • controlar o peso.

É completamente possível controlar a pressão alta e ter uma vida normal e produtiva. A doença não é uma sentença de vida breve, mas o entendimento do paciente de que é necessário fazer mudanças é muito importante para o sucesso do tratamento. Somente assim será possível manter a doença controlada.

Você tem pressão alta? Já faz acompanhamento médico? Conte nos comentários como é sua relação com a doença e quais cuidados adota.

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