Entenda o que é e quais os sintomas de Lúpus

O lúpus é uma doença autoimune, que faz o sistema imunológico atacar o próprio organismo da pessoa. Por esse motivo, é importante entender os sintomas desse problema para buscar ajuda profissional.

Em geral, essa doença provoca inflamações e lesões em vários órgãos, como pulmões, rins, articulações e pele. Em alguns casos, ela pode atingir o coração e o cérebro.

Neste artigo, vamos comentar sobre o lúpus, abordando seus principais sintomas e formas de tratamento. Continue a leitura para saber mais!

Tipos de lúpus

O nome completo da doença é Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES), que se apresenta em quatro tipos diferentes: discóide, sistêmico, induzido por drogas e neonatal. Veja, a seguir, as características de cada um deles.

Lúpus discoide

Atinge somente a pele, podendo ser identificado por lesões avermelhadas com formatos, tamanhos e colorações específicas, que surgem principalmente no couro cabeludo, nuca e rosto. Em alguns casos, pode evoluir para o tipo sistêmico.

Lúpus sistêmico

Esse é o tipo mais comum da doença, que pode se apresentar de forma leve ou grave. A inflamação ocorre em todo o organismo, comprometendo vários sistemas e órgãos, além da pele, como sangue, pulmões, rins, coração e articulações.

Lúpus induzido por drogas

As inflamações são provocadas por substância de algumas drogas e/ou medicamentos. Os sintomas se assemelham aos que ocorrem no tipo sistêmico e desaparecem assim que a pessoa deixa de utilizar os agentes nocivos.

Lúpus neonatal

Esse é um tipo raro da doença, que afeta recém-nascidos, cujas mães apresentam lúpus. Em geral, os bebês podem nascer com problemas no fígado, baixa contagem de células sanguíneas ou erupções na pele. Essas alterações tendem a desaparecer naturalmente, após algum tempo.

Principais causas do lúpus

De acordo com a Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (SBR), a causa da doença é desconhecida. Entretanto, alguns fatores contribuem para a sua manifestação, como genéticos, hormonais e ambientais. Dessa forma, as pessoas geneticamente suscetíveis podem desenvolver o lúpus após contato com fatores ambientais, como a irradiação solar e infecções virais.

Sintomas de lúpus

Os sintomas que as pessoas desenvolvem dependem do tipo de autoanticorpo que elas apresentam, já que o sistema imune se relaciona às características genéticas.

Em geral, os pacientes apresentam sinais moderados, que aparecem em crises esporádicas, se agravam por um tempo e, posteriormente, desaparecem. Os principais sintomas do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico são:

  • cansaço;
  • desconforto geral, ansiedade, mal-estar;
  • dificuldade para respirar;
  • dor de cabeça, confusão mental e perda da memória;
  • falta de apetite;
  • febre baixa;
  • feridas na boca;
  • inflamação nas articulações (mais frequente);
  • lesões na pele;
  • linfonodos aumentados;
  • queda de cabelo;
  • sensibilidade à luz do sol.

Nos casos mais graves, o lúpus pode comprometer diversos órgãos, conforme já comentamos.

Diagnóstico

Muitas vezes, o lúpus sistêmico passa despercebido, como uma doença silenciosa, por apresentar sintomas que podem ser confundidos com outras enfermidades. Por esse motivo, é comum que o diagnóstico demore a ser definido.

Para tanto, é realizada uma análise pelo médico considerando os sintomas clínicos e os resultados de exames de sangue, urina, testes de anticorpos, hemograma completo, radiografia do tórax e biópsia renal (quando necessária).

Tratamento

O tratamento do lúpus é feito de forma individualizada por um reumatologista ou dermatologista, considerando as especificidades do paciente. Por se tratar de uma doença crônica, em geral, são indicados medicamentos que cuidam dos sintomas, como:

  • anti-inflamatórios não esteroides — trata a pleurisia e a artrite;
  • corticoide tópico — ação antibiótica para pequenas alterações dermatológicas;
  • corticoides orais — reduzem as manifestações na pele e articulações;
  • protetor solar.

Para os casos mais graves podem ser indicadas altas dosagens de corticoides ou medicamentos para o sistema imunológico. Também podem ser administradas drogas que bloqueiam o crescimento celular (citotóxicas).

Como vimos, o lúpus é uma doença autoimune crônica que pode levar a óbito quando não tratada. Por esse motivo, é importante conhecer os seus sintomas para buscar ajuda de um médico especialista e evitar o agravamento do problema.

As informações sobre os sintomas de lúpus ajudaram a entender melhor o assunto? Então, siga-nos nas redes sociais para ficar atualizado com as nossas postagens. Estamos no Facebook e no Instagram!

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